Flowering plants have either one or two cotyledons (seed leaves -Monocotyledons and Di-Cotyledons).
Dicot plants: Dicotyledons (two seed leaves) have floral parts usually in multiples of four or five.
Monocot plants: Monocotyledons (one seed leaf) have floral parts in multiples of three.
Opuntia is a genus in the cactus family, Cactaceae. Prickly pear is a cactus with leaves modified to spines. The most common culinary species is the Indian fig opuntia (O. ficus-indica). Most culinary uses of the term “prickly pear” refer to this species. Prickly pears are also known as tuna(fruit) or nopal(paddle, plural nopales) from the Nahuatl word nōpalli for the pads, or nostle, from the Nahuatl word nōchtli for the fruit; or paddle cactus. The genus is named for the Ancient Greek city of Opus, where, according to Theophrastus, an edible plant grew which could be propagated by rooting its leaves.
Poppies are herbaceous annual, biennial or short-lived perennial plants. Belong to the family Papaveraceae. Some species are monocarpic, dying after flowering. Poppies can be over 4 feet tall with flowers up to six inches across. The flowers have 4 to 6 petals, many stamens forming a conspicuous whorl in the centre of the flower and an ovary consisting of from 2 to many fused carpels. The petals are showy, may be of almost any color and some have markings. The petals are crumpled in the bud and as blooming finishes; the petals often lie flat before falling away. Poppies are in full bloom late spring to early summer. Most species secrete latex when injured. Bees use poppies as a pollen source.
Poppy is an annual that springs up in disturbed ground. Long-headed poppy is an annual that is associated with cultivated plants, especially rye. It is originally a species of semi-oceanic climate. It spread to Southwestern Finland with seed corn from the south. Long-headed poppy has declined following the change in agricultural practices like many other weed species. Earlier the cleaning of seed corn was imperfect and, hence, the seeds of the weeds were sown together with the corn. Many weed species that are week competitors have vanished from the fields due to modern technology, efficient herbicides and seed corn inspections. Long-headed poppy and its look-alike, corn poppy, also called field poppy (P. rhoeas), occur in similar habitats but the arts can be distinguished by the shape of their capsules. That of corn poppy is almost spherical with 7–16 stigma-rays.
Family: Nymphaeacea. Water-lily is an aquatic perennial with floating leaves and flowers. Water-lily’s flower floats on the surface but after flowering the pedicel coils and drags the flower under water where the fruit develops. When the seeds are ripe and released they rice back to the surface. The seeds float with the help of an air-filled aril and are dispersed by waves and current. Eventually they sink and germinate in the bottom muds.
Water lilies are a well-studied clade of plants because their large flowers with multiple unspecialized parts were initially considered to represent the floral pattern of the earliest flowering plants, and later genetic studies confirmed their evolutionary position as basal angiosperms.
Analyses of floral morphology and molecular characteristics and comparisons with a sister taxon, the family Cabombaceae, indicate, however, that the flowers of extant water lilies with the most floral parts are more derived than the genera with fewer floral parts. Genera with more floral parts, Nuphar, Nymphaea, Victoria, have a beetle pollination syndrome, while genera with fewer parts are pollinated by flies or bees, or are self-or wind-pollinated. Thus, the large number of relatively unspecialized floral organs in the Nymphaeaceae is not an ancestral condition for the clade.
4. Common evening primrose:
Family : Onagraceae
Genus : Oenothera
Species : O.biennis
Binomial name : Oenothera biennis
Oenothera biennis has a life span of two years (biennial) growing to 30–150 cm tall. The leaves are lanceolate, 5–20 cm long and 1–2.5 cm broad, produced in a tight rosette the first year, and spirally on a stem the second year. This plant is commonly grows in disturbed soil. Blooming lasts from late spring to late summer. The flowers are hermaphrodite, produced on a tall spike and only last until the following noon. They open visibly fast every evening producing an interesting spectacle, hence the name “evening primrose.”
The blooms are yellow, 2.5–5 cm diameter, with four bi-lobed petals. The flower structure has an invisible to the naked eye bright nectar guide pattern. This pattern is apparent under ultraviolet light and visible to its pollinators, moths, butterflies, and bees. The fruit is a capsule 2–4 cm long and 4–6 mm broad, containing numerous 1–2 mm long seeds, released when the capsule splits into four sections at maturity.
Family : Brassicaceae
Genus : Lunaria
Species : L.annua
Binomial Name: Lunaria annua
Lunaria annua, called honesty or annual honesty in English, is a species of flowering plant native to the Balkans and south west Asia, and naturalized throughout the temperate world. Honesty has flowers that turn into papery fruits. It is an annual or biennial growing to 90 cm (35 in) tall by 30 cm (12 in) broad, with large, coarse, pointed oval leaves with marked serrations.
In spring and summer it bears terminal racemes of white or violet flowers, followed by showy, light brown, translucent, disc-shaped seedpods (silicles) the skin of which falls off to release the seeds, revealing a central membrane which is white with a silvery sheen, 3–8 cm (1–3 in) in diameter; they persist on the plant through winter. These pods are much used in floral arrangements.
Family : Asteraceae
Genus : Aster
Species : amellus
Binomial name :Aster amellus
Michaelmas daisy is a tall, stiff perennial with clusters of flowers. Michaelmas comes under Asteraceae Family. The genus Aster once contained nearly 600 species in Eurasia and North America, but after morphologic and molecular research on the genus during the 1990s, it was decided that the North American species are better treated in a series of other related genera. After this split there are roughly 180 species within the genus, all but one being confined to Eurasia.
The name Aster comes from the Ancient Greek word aster meaning “star”, referring to the shape of the flower head. Many species and a variety of hybrids and varieties are popular as garden plants because of their attractive and colourful flowers. Aster species are used as food plants by the larvae of a number of Lepidoptera species. Asters can grow in all hardiness zones.
7. Hottentot fig:
Family : Aizoaceae
Genus : Carpobrotus
Species : edulis
Binomial name : Carpobrotus edulis
Hottentot fig is a trailing perennial with fleshy leaves, mat-forming succulent species and member of the stone plant family Aizoaceae, one of about 30 species in the genus Carpobrotus. C. edulis is easily confused with its close relatives, including the more diminutive and less aggressive Carpobrotus chilensis (sea fig), with which it hybridizes readily. C. edulis can, however, be distinguished from most of its relatives by the colour of its flowers.
8. Himalayan balsam:
Family : Balsaminaceae
Genus : Impatiens
Species : I.glandulifera
Binomial name :Impatiens glandulifera
Himalayan Balsam is sometimes cultivated for its flowers. It is now widely established in other parts of the world (such as the British Isles and the United States), in some cases becoming an invasive species weed. The aggressive seed dispersal, coupled with high nectar production which attracts pollinators, often allows the Himalayan Balsam to outcompete native plants. Himalayan balsam has fruits that explode when ripe.
9. Marsh marigold:
Family : Ranunculaceae
Genus : Caltha
Species : C.palustris
Binomial name : Caltha palustris
Marsh marigold grows by ponds and in marshes. The flowers are yellow, 2–5 cm (1–2 in) diameter, with 4-9 (mostly 5) petal-like sepals and many yellow stamens; they appear in early spring to late summer. The flowers are visited by a great variety of insects for pollen and for the nectar secreted from small depressions, one on each side of each carpel. Carpels form into green sac-like follicles to 1 cm long, each opening to release several seeds.
10. Sea pea:
Family : Fabaceae
Genus : Lathyrus
Species : L. japonicus
Binomial name: Lathyrus japonicus
Sea pea is an herbaceous perennial plant growing trailing stems to 50–80 cm long, typically on sand and gravel storm beaches. Sea pea is a spreading plant that grows high on shingly beaches. Sea pea typically grows in half-open places and can hold its own for quite a long time amidst encroaching vegetation, even on the edge of forests. The leaves are waxy glaucous green, 5–10 cm long, pinnate, with 2-5 pairs of leaflets, the terminal leaflet usually replaced by a twining tendril. The flowers are broad, with a dark purple standard petal and paler purple wing and keel petals; they are produced in racemes of up to twelve flowers.
11. Spring gentian:
Family : Gentianaceae
Genus : Gentiana
Species : verna
Binomial name : Gentiana verna
Spring gentian is a perennial often seen in mountain meadows. G. verna is one of the most widespread gentians, found on sunny alpine meadows and moorland throughout Eurasia from Ireland to Russia. It is common in central and southeastern Europe, such as in low mountain ranges like the Jura and Balkans, and up to an altitude of 2,600 metres (8,500 ft). It is also to be found in mountainous regions ranging from the High Atlas of Morocco to the mountains of Turkey, Iraq and Iran. In northern Europe, it is very rare, confined to Teasdale in northern England and a handful of locations in western Ireland. It tends to thrive on dry meadows with chalky soil; it is also known to grow in silicaceous soils. Its scarcity has led to protection in a number of European countries as an endangered species.
12. Ragged robin:
Family : Caryophyllaceae
Genus : Lychnis
Species : L.flos-cuculi
Binomial name : Lychnis flos-cuculi L
Lychnis flos-cuculi, is the Botanical name of Ragged Robin; family Caryophyllaceae. Ragged-Robin is a perennial with delicate pink flower that is likely to be growing in wet areas like marshes, fens and meadows. It has much-divided, pink flowers (hence the name ‘Ragged’) and narrow, grass-like leaves. Grows almost everywhere in the UK and native to Europe. In Britain it has declined in numbers because of modern farming techniques and draining of wet-lands and is no longer common. However, Lychnis flos-cuculi has become naturalized in parts of the northern United States and eastern Canada and has been listed as potentially invasive in some areas.
13. Wild pansy:
Family : Violaceae
Genus : Viola
Species : V.tricolor
Binomial name : viola tricolor
Wild pansy is a small plant that is often a garden weed. It is also known as Viola tricolor, heartsease, heart’s ease, heart’s delight, tickle-my-fancy, Jack-jump-up-and-kiss-me, come-and-cuddle-me, three faces in a hood, or love-in-idleness, is a common European wild flower, growing as an annual or short-lived perennial. It has been introduced into North America, where it has spread widely, and is known as the johnny jump up (though this name is also applied to similar species such as the yellow pansy). It is the progenitor of the cultivated pansy, and is therefore sometimes called wild pansy; before the cultivated pansies were developed, “pansy” was an alternative name for the wild form.
This is a small plant of creeping and ramping habit, reaching at most 15 cm in height, with flowers about 1.5 cm in diameter. It grows in short grassland on farms and wasteland, chiefly on acid or neutral soils. It is usually found in partial shade. It flowers from April to September (in the northern hemisphere). The flowers can be purple, blue, yellow or white. They are hermaphrodite and self-fertile, pollinated by bees.
As its name implies,heartsease has a long history of use in herbalism. It has been recommended, among other uses, for epilepsy, asthma, skin diseases and eczema. Viola tricolor has a history in folk medicine of helping respiratory problems such as bronchitis, asthma, and cold symptoms.It has expectorant properties, and so has been used in the treatment of chest complaints such as bronchitis and whooping cough. It is also a diuretic, leading to its use in treating rheumatism and cystitis.
Yellow, green, and blue-green dyes can also be made using the flowers, while the leaves can be used to make a chemical indicator.
The Heartsease or Wild Pansy found on hedge banks and waste ground, it seems in an especial degree a weed of cultivation, found most freely in cornfields and garden ground. It blossoms almost throughout the entire floral season, expanding its attractive little flowers in the early days of summer and keeping up a succession of blossom until late in autumn.
The Heartsease is as variable as any of the other members of the genus, but whatever modifications of form it may present, it may always be readily distinguished from the other Violets by the general form of its foliage, which is much more cut up than in any of the other species and by the very large leafy stipules at the base of the true leaves. The stem, too, branches more than is commonly found in the other members of the genus. Besides the free branching of the stem, which is mostly 4 to 8 inches in height, it is generally very angular. The leaves are deeply cut into rounded lobes, the terminal one being considerably the largest. In the other species of Viola the foliage is ordinarily very simple in outline, heart shaped, or kidney-shaped, having its edge finely toothed.
Family : Menyanthaceae
Genus : Menyanthes
Species : M.trifoliata
Binomial name : Menyanthes trifoliate L
Bogbean is aquatic plant. Menyanthes trifoliata has a horizontal rhizome with an alternate trifoliate leaves. The inflorescence is an erect raceme of white flowers. It occurs in fens and bogs in Asia, Europe, and North America. In eastern North America, it is considered to be a diagnostic fen species.It sometimes creates big quagmires with its thick roots.
Bogbean actually has two types of flower: one with long style and short stamens and with short style and long stamens protruding from the flower. This arrangement promotes cross-fertilization because long-stamened flowers’ pollen can only fertilize long-styled flowers, and vice versa. Pollination is carried out by bumblebees and other bees, which are attracted to bogbean’s beautiful flowers.
Flowering bogbean is a beautiful sight: the fringed hairs on the inner side of the corolla make the flower very decorative. The purpose of the hairs is probably to protect the flower’s store of nectar from small insects, which is not helpful for the pollination. Seed production varies: a broad stand can be one and the same vegetatively-spreading plant whose seeds never ripen at all.
15. Meadow cranesbill:
Family : Geraniaceae
Genus : Geranium
Species : G.pratense
Binomial name : Geranium pratense
Geranium pratense, the meadow cranesbill, is a species of hardy flowering herbaceous perennial plant in the genus Geranium, Geraniaceae family. It is a hairy perennial with deeply lobed leaves and large mauve flowers. The lobes are divided into 7-9 lobes and 3-6 inch wide, and the flowers are pale blue. It is native to much of Europe and Asia, but is cultivated and naturalized elsewhere.
Unlike many cranesbills, meadow cranesbill’s flowers are deep violet (or white) rather than light purple. Large leaves and radial white or purple veins only add to the attractiveness of the flowers. The flowering time is often very abundant, and in autumn the plant turns a lovely shade of red to boot.
Meadow cranesbill has long been a popular ornamental which has spread to the wild in many places in southern and eastern Finland as far as Kuusamo. In northern Finland it also arrived with German soldiers’ provisions during WWII. It can be most easily differentiated from other ornamental cranesbills by the way that its leaves are narrowly lobed almost down to their base, making them look quite ragged. Of the other Finnish species, meadow cranesbill is probably most like wood cranesbill (G. sylvaticum), although its stem is without edges, its leaves are bluntly lobed, its flower-stalks are erect and its flowers are clearly smaller.
16. Monks hood:
Family : Ranuculaceae
Genus : Aconitum
Species : napellus
Binomial name : Aconitum napellus
Monks hood is a perennial found in damp woodlands. Monkshoods protect themselves against predators with a cocktail of poison that contains aconite, as is evident from the plant’s scientific name, and other closely related alkaloids. The plant guards its rootstock very carefully, but in fact all the aerial parts are poisonous too.
Monkshood’s poison has been known for a long time and tinctures were already being used in ancient times as poison for arrow tips. In the dawn of Western civilization Romans, Greeks and Arabs had the ability to use monkshood in warfare, disposing of wild beasts, not to mention bumping off troublesome spouses, political enemies and other foes.
Family : Celastraceae
Genus : Celastrus
Species : scandens
Binomial name : Celastrus scandens
Bittersweet is a scrambling plant of ditches and hedgerows. Celastrus scandens, commonly called American bittersweet or bittersweet, is a species of Celastrus that blooms mostly in June and is commonly found on rich, well-drained soils of woodlands. It has a sturdy perennial vine that may have twining, woody stems that are 30 feet (9.1 m) or longer and an inch or more thick at the base.
The stems are yellowish-green to brown and wind around other vegetation, sometimes killing saplings by restricting further growth. It has tiny, scentless flowers at the tips of the branches. It has colorful, orange fruits that are the size of a pea. These fruits are poisonous to humans when ingested internally, but are favorites of birds. C. scandens roots were used by Native Americans and pioneers to induce vomiting, to treat venereal disease, and to treat symptoms of tuberculosis.
C. scandens is native to central and eastern North America. It was given the name bittersweet by European colonists in the 18th century because the fruits resembled the appearance of the fruits of Eurasian nightshade (Solanum dulcamara), which was also called bittersweet. Today, American bittersweet is the accepted common name of C. scandens in large part to distinguish it from an invasive relative, C. orbiculatus (Oriental bittersweet), from Asia.
18. Sea kale:
Family : Brassicaceae
Genus : Crambe
Species : C.maritima
Binomial name : Crambe maritime
Crambe maritime: Its common name sea kale, seakale or crambe is a species of halophytic flowering plant that grows wild along the coasts of Europe, from the North Atlantic to the Black Sea with thick grey and waxy leaves. Its perennial herb growing at a height about 30-60cm Stems are rigid and glabrous. In Flowers gynoecium fused, a single carpel. Inflorescence an abundantly flowered, corymbose raceme, extending in fruiting stage.
Leaves are alternate, stalked. Lower leaf-blades lobed–with toothed margins (sometimes entire margins), crinkled, fleshy, glabrous, waxy, bluish green, upper leaf-blades narrow. Fruit are one seeded, indehiscent, approx. 10 mm (0.4 in.) long 2-parted silicula with small, stalk-like basal part, tip globose, grooved, net-veined, almost tipless. Stalk approx. 10 mm (0.4 in.), ascending.
Sea kale grows in a sandy and gravelly area. Salty seawater is a difficult problem for many plants but sea kale only grows in areas where the water has at least six promilles of salt. In Finland it is thus limited to the Åland Islands and the south-western archipelago, while on the mainland it only grows around the sandy beaches of the Hanko peninsula.
The Denmark Sound occasionally pushes the saltier water of the Atlantic into the Baltic Sea, which raises the salinity of the brackish water. After this influx of salt water sea kale spreads and can be found growing as far away as the northern archipelago. The plant’s fruits are able to float for months and remain viable in the slightly salty water of the Baltic, so it spreads far on the currents. Sea kale has spread to Finland’s shores and probably will again sometimes from Estonia.
Sea kale has been a popular vegetable along the Atlantic coast for centuries. Plots were covered in sand so that young shoots would not go green as the blanched stalks are delicious and are eaten like asparagus. The wild plants are edible and are best eaten young because they become bitter as they grow.
Sheep are very fond of the plant too and have wiped it out on large areas of the Finnish archipelago. It is also a popular perennial abroad because of its bluish green colour. The inflorescence is large and impressive, and the white flowers smell of nectar and attract an abundance of pollinators.
19. Bell heather:
Family : Ericaceae
Genus : Erica
Species : E.cinerea
Binomial name : Erica cinerea
Bell heather or Heather bell is a species of flowering plant in the family Ericaceae which is native to the Western and Central European countries. It is a shrub growing at a height of 15-60 centimeters tall. The leaves are needle like about 4-8 millimeters long in whorls of three. The flowers are bell shaped and produced in the mid to late summer the flowers are drying similar in texture to the straw flower.
It is also grown as an ornamental plant, cultivated in a wider range of colors. It is drought-tolerant and grows well in full sun with well-drained soil. Like most heathers, it is a calcifuge and dislikes alkaline soils (e.g. limestone) which cause the symptoms of iron deficiency. Like other cultivated heathers, it is often seen as groundcover amongst plantings of dwarf conifers. Bell heather is a low-growing evergreen shrub that grows on dry heaths and moors.